The material cited here is not necessarily the primary source for each piece of work, but is that considered most likely to be accessible, especially to the amateur without access to an academic library. These references include books and journals, particularly British Birds, Ibis, and the BTO journals Bird Study and Ringing & Migration, as well as the annual county bird reports, now called Cheshire and Wirral Bird Report (CWBR) and previously named Cheshire Bird Report (CBR). Not every book or paper listed here is directly cited in the text, but all have been consulted in its preparation.

Some of the information in the texts has been gleaned from the websites of various organizations, especially the BTO with their two marvellous sources of information, Breeding Birds in the Wider Countryside ( (Baillie et al. 2007) and BirdFacts ( (Robinson 2005), and the UK Meteorological Office (


Aebischer, N.J. & Ewald, J.A. (2004) Managing the UK Grey Partridge Perdix perdix recovery: population change, reproduction, habitat and shooting. Ibis 146 (s2): 181-191.

Alström, P. & Mild, K. (2003) Pipits and Wagtails. Helm.

Amar, A., Hewson, C.M., Thewlis, R.M., Smith, K.W., Fuller, R.J., Lindsell, J., Conway, G., Butler, S. & MacDonald, M.A. (2006). What’s happening to our woodland birds? Long-term changes in the populations of woodland birds. BTO Research Report No. 169, RSPB Research Report No 19, RSPB, Sandy.

Anderson R. (1993) Wintering Little Grebes. Cheshire and Wirral Bird Report 1993. pp.84-85.

Anthes, N. (2004) Long-distance migration timing of Tringa sandpipers adjusted to recent climate change. Bird Study 51: 203 - 211.

Atkinson-Willes, G.L. (1963) Wildfowl in Great Britain. HMSO.

Austin, G.E., Rehfisch, M.M., Allan, J.R. & Holloway, S.J. (2007) Population size and differential population growth of introduced Greater Canada Geese Branta canadensis and re-established Greylag Geese Anser anser across habitats in Great Britain in the year 2000. Bird Study 54: 343-352.


Baillie, S.R. & Peach, W.J. (1992) Population limitation in Palaearctic–African migrant passerines. Ibis 134 Suppl. 1: 120–132.

Baillie, S.R., Marchant, J.H., Crick, H.Q.P., Noble, D.G., Balmer, D.E., Barimore, C., Coombes, R.H., Downie, I.S., Freeman, S.N., Joys, A.C., Leech, D.I., Raven, M.J., Robinson, R.A. & Thewlis, R.M. (2007) Breeding Birds in the Wider Countryside: their conservation status 2007. BTO Research Report No. 487. BTO, Thetford. (

Baker, H., Stroud, D.A., Aebischer, N.J., Cranswick, P.A., Gregory, R.D., McSorley, C.A., Noble, D.G. & Rehfisch, M.M. (2006) Population estimates of birds in Britain and in the United Kingdom. British Birds 99: 2-24.

Banks, A.N., Coombes, R.H. & Crick, H.Q.P. (2003) The Peregrine Falcon breeding population of the UK & Isle of Man in 2002. Research Report 330. BTO, Thetford.

Banks, A.N., Collier, M.P., Austin, G.E., Hearn, R.D. & Musgrove, A.J. (2006) Waterbirds in the UK 2004/05: the Wetland Bird Survey. BTO/WWT/RSPB/JNCC, Thetford.

Barber, S. & Hargreaves, R. (1999) The Cheshire & Wirral Raptor Study Group’s breeding Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) survey in Cheshire & Wirral 1999 & 2000. Cheshire & Wirral Bird Report 1999, pp. 105-111.

Barber, S. & Barber, G. (2003) Firecrests breeding: a first for Cheshire. Cheshire and Wirral Bird Report 2003. pp. 145-147.

Batten, L.A. (1973) The colonisation of England by the Firecrest. British Birds 66: 159-166.

Beer, S. (1995) An Exaltation of Skylarks. SMH Books, Pulborough.

Bell, T.H. (1962) The Birds of Cheshire. Sherratt, Altrincham.

Bell, T.H. (1967) A Supplement to The Birds of Cheshire. Sherratt, Altrincham.

Bevington, A. (1991) Habitat selection in the Dunnock Prunella modularis in northern England. Bird Study 38: 87-91.

Bibby, C.J. (1982) Polygyny and breeding ecology of the Cetti’s Warbler Cettia cetti. Ibis 124: 288-301.

Bibby, C.J. (1983) Studies of west Palearctic birds 186. Bearded Tit. British Birds 76: 549-563.

Bibby, C.J. (1989) A survey of breeding Wood Warblers Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Britain, 1984–85. Bird Study 36: 56–72.

Bibby, C.J., Hill, D.A., Burgess, N.D. & Mustoe, S. (2000) Bird Census Techniques. 2nd edition. Academic Press.

BirdLife International (2004) Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International (Conservation Series No. 12).

Birkhead, M. & Perrins, C.M. (1986) The Mute Swan. Croom Helm

Birkhead, T.R. (1991) The Magpies. T & A D Poyser, London.

Bishton, G. (2001) Social structure, habitat use and breeding biology of hedgerow Dunnocks Prunella modularis. Bird Study 48: 188-193.

Blindell, R.M., Conlin, A. & Williams, S. (2005) Pallas’s Warbler in Cheshire: the first North West wintering record. Cheshire and Wirral Bird Report 2005, pp. 122-124.

Both, C., Bouwhuis, S., Lessells, C.M. & Visser, M.E. (2006) Climate change and population declines in a long-distance migratory bird. Nature 441 (4): 81–83.

Boyd, A.W. (1946) The Country Diary of a Cheshire Man. Collins, London.

Boyd, A.W. (1951) A Country Parish. Collins New Naturalist, London.

Brickle, N.W. & Harper, D.G. (2002) Agricultural intensification and the timing of breeding of Corn Buntings Miliaria calandra. Bird Study 49: 219–228.

Briggs, K.B. (1984) The breeding ecology of coastal and inland Oystercatchers in north Lancashire. Bird Study 31:141-147.

Brindley, E., Lucas, F. & Waterhouse, M. (1992) North Staffordshire Moors Survey 1992. RSPB

Bromhall, D. (1980) Devil Birds. Hutchinson, London.

Broome, A.M. (1987). Corncrakes in Cheshire 1987. Cheshire and Wirral Bird Report 1987, pp. 84-85.

Broughton, R.K., Hinsley, S.A., Bellamy, P.E., Hill, S.A. & Rothery, P. (2006) Marsh Tit Poecile palustris territories in a British broad-leaved wood. Ibis 148: 744-752.

Brown, A.F. & Stillman, R.A. (1998) The return of the Merlin to the South Pennines Bird Study 45: 293–301.

Brown, A. & Grice, P. (2005) Birds in England. T & A D Poyser, London.

Brown, L. (1976) British Birds of Prey. Collins, London.    
Browne, S., Vickery, J. & Chamberlain, D. (2000) Density & population estimates of breeding Skylarks in Britain. Bird Study 47:52-65

Browne, S.J., Aebischer, N.J., Yfantis, G. & Marchant, J.H. (2004). Habitat availability and use by Turtle Doves Streptopelia turtur between 1965 and 1995: an analysis of Common Birds Census data. Bird Study 51: 1-11.

Browne, S.J. & Aebischer, N.J. (2005) Studies of West Palearctic birds: Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur. British Birds 98: 58-72.

Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. & Thomas, L. (2001) Introduction to Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. & Thomas, L. (2004) Advanced Distance Sampling. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Bunn, D.S., Warburton, A.B. & Wilson, R.D.S. (1982) The Barn Owl. T & A D Poyser

Burfield, I.J. & Brooke, M. de L. (2005) The decline of the Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus in Britain: evidence from bird observatory data. Ringing & Migration 22: 199–204.

Burton, N.H.K., Musgrove, A.J., Rehfisch, M.M., Sutcliffe, A. & Waters, R. (2003) Numbers of wintering gulls in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man: a review of the 1993 and previous Winter Gull Roost Surveys.  British Birds 96: 376-401.

Burton, N.H.K. (2007) Influence of restock age and habitat patchiness on Tree Pipits breeding in Breckland pine plantations. Ibis

Butler, C.J. (2003) Population biology of the introduced Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri in the UK. D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford.

Buxton, J. (1950) The Redstart. Collins, London


Calbrade, N., Entwistle, C.A., Smith, A.J. & Spencer, K.G. (2001) Roof assemblies of Lapwings and plovers in Britain. British Birds 94: 35-38.

Calladine, J., Buner, F. & Aebischer, N.J. (1999) Temporal variations in the singing activity and detection efficiency of Turtle Doves Streptopelia turtur: implications for surveying. Bird Study 46: 74-80.

Calvert, M. (2005) Reed warblers at Rostherne Mere. English Nature, Shrewsbury.

Calvert, M. (1988) Cheshire Reed Warblers as Cuckoos hosts. Cheshire & Wirral Bird Report 1988. p.87.

Campbell, L.H., Cayford, J. & Pearson, D. (1996) Bearded Tits in Britain and Ireland. British Birds. 89:335-346

Carter, I. (2001) The Red Kite. Arlequin Press, Chelmsford.

Chandler, R.J. (1981). Influxes into Britain and Ireland of Red-necked Grebes and other waterbirds during winter 1978/ 79. British Birds 74: 55-81.

Chapman, A. (1999) The Hobby. Arlequin Press, Chelmsford.

Chilès, J.-P. & Delfiner, P. (1999) Geostatistics: Modelling Spatial Uncertainty. Wiley, New York.

Clarke, J. (2005) The Spotted What? Plum Tree Publishing, Worcester.

Clarke, R. & Watson, D. (1990) The Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus Winter Roost Survey in Britain and Ireland. . Bird Study 37: 84-100.

Clarke, R. (1995) The Marsh Harrier. Hamlyn, London

Clement, P. (1995) The Chiffchaff. Hamlyn, London.

Clements, R. (2002) The Common Buzzard in Britain: a new population estimate. British Birds 95: 377–383.

Colquhoun, M.K. (1942) Notes on the social behaviour of Blue Tits. British Birds 35: 234-240.

Combridge, P. & Parr, C. (1992) Influx of Little Egrets in Britain and Ireland in 1989. British Birds 85: 16-21.

Conder, P. (1989) The Wheatear. Helm, London    

Conrad, K.F., Woiwod, I.P., Parsons, M., Fox, R. & Warren, M.S. (2004) Long-term population trends in widespread British moths. J. Insect Cons. 8: 119-136

Conway, G., Wotton, S., Henderson, I., Langston, R., Drewitt, A. & Currie, F. (2007) Status and distribution of European Nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus in the UK in 2004. Bird Study 54: 98–111.

Conway, G. (2005) Population composition of wintering Common Chiffchaffs in southern England. British Birds 98: 396-410.

Cookson, D. (1993) Cheshire’s Mute Swans. Cheshire and Wirral Bird Report 1993, pp. 86-87.

Coombs, C.J.F. (1978) The Crows. Batsford, London.

Coward, T.A. & Oldham, C. (1900) The Birds of Cheshire.

Coward, T.A. (1910) The Vertebrate Fauna of Cheshire and Liverpool Bay. Witherby, London.

Cowley, E. (2001) June broods are of greatest benefit to Sand Martins Riparia riparia. Ring. & Migr. 20: 202-208.

Cowley E. & Siriwardena, G.M. (2005) Long-term variation in survival rates of Sand Martins Riparia riparia: dependence on breeding and wintering ground weather, age and sex, and their population consequences.  Bird Study 52: 237–251.

Craggs, J.D. (1982). Hilbre: The Cheshire Island. Liverpool University Press.

Crick, H.Q.P. (1992) A bird-habitat coding system for use in Britain and Ireland incorporating aspects of land management and human activity. Bird Study 39: 1-12.

Crick, H.Q.P. & Sparks, T.H. (1999) Climate change related to egg-laying trends. Nature 399: 423–424.

Crick, H., Banks, A. & Coombes, R. (2003). Findings of the National Peregrine Survey 2002. BTO News 248: 8-9.

Cross, A.V. & Davis, P.E. (1998) The Red Kites of Wales. The Welsh Kite Trust, Llandrindod Wells.


Davies, A.K. (1988) The distribution and status of the Mandarin Duck, Aix galericulata, in Britain. Bird Study 35: 203-208.

Davies, A.K. & Baggott, G.K. (1989a) Clutch size and nesting sites of the Mandarin Duck, Aix galericulata. Bird Study 36: 32-36.

Davies, A.K. & Baggott, G.K. (1989b) Egg-laying, incubation and intraspecific nest parasitism by the Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata. Bird Study 36: 115-122.

Davies, N.B. (1982) Territorial behaviour of Pied Wagtails in winter. British Birds 75: 261-267.

Davies, N.B. (1987) Studies of West Palearctic birds: 188. Dunnock. British Birds 80: 604-624.

Davies, N.B. (1992) Dunnock Behaviour and Social Evolution. Oxford University Press.
Davies, N.B. (2000) Cuckoos, Cowbirds and other cheats. T. & A.D. Poyser

Day, J.C., Hodgson, M.S. & Rossiter, B.N. (1995) The Atlas of Breeding Birds in Northumbria. Northumberland and Tyneside Bird Club.

Day, J.C. & Hodgson, M.S. (2003) The Atlas of Wintering Birds in Northumbria. Northumberland and Tyneside Bird Club.

Deans, P., Sankey, J., Smith, L., Tucker, J., Whittles, C. & Wright, C. (1992) An Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Shropshire. Shropshire Ornithological Society.

Donald, P.F. & Evans, A.D. (1994) Habitat selection by Corn Buntings Miliaria calandra in winter. Bird Study 41: 199–210.

Donald, P.F. & Aebischer, N.J. (eds.) (1997) The Ecology and Conservation of Corn Buntings Miliaria calandra. UK Nature Conservation No. 13. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.

Donald, P.F. (2004) The Skylark. T. & A.D. Poyser.

Donald, P.F. & Morris, T.J. (2005) Saving the Sky Lark: new solutions for a declining farmland bird. British Birds 98: 570–578.

Dougall, T.W., Holland, P.K. & Yalden, D.W. (2004) A revised estimate of the breeding population of Common Sandpipers Actitis hypoleucos in Great Britain and Ireland. Wader Study Group Bulletin 105: 42–49.

Dymond, J.N., Fraser, P.A. & Gantlett, S.J.M. (1989) Rare birds in Britain and Ireland. T & A D Poyser, Calton.


Eaton, M.A., Austin, G.E., Banks, A.N., Conway, G., Douse, A., Grice, P.V., Hearn, R., Hilton, G., Hoccom, D., Musgrove, A.J., Noble, D.G., Ratcliffe, N., Rehfisch, M.M., Worden, J. & Wotton, S. (2007). The state of the UK’s birds 2006. RSPB, BTO, WWT, CCW, EHS, NE and SNH, Sandy, Bedfordshire.

Elphick, D. (1979) An inland flock of Curlews Numenius arquata in mid-Cheshire, England. Wader Study Group Bulletin 26: 31-35.

Elphick, D. (1985) The status of the Mute Swan in Cheshire and Wirral. Cheshire Bird Report 1985, pp. 83-94.

Etheridge, B. & Summers, R.W. (2006) Movements of British Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus outside the breeding season. Ring. & Migr. 23: 6-14.

Evans, K.L. & Robinson, R.A. (2004) Barn Swallows and agriculture. British Birds 97: 218–230.


Farrer, G.B. (1938) Feathered Folk of an Estuary. Country Life Books, London.

Feare, C. (1984) The Starling. Oxford University Press.

Fiuczynski, D. & Nethersole-Thompson, D. (1980) Hobby studies in England and Germany. British Birds 73: 275-295.

Forshaw, W.D. (1979) Severe weather movement of Pink-footed Geese in Cheshire and North Wales, 1979. Cheshire Bird Report 1979. pp.66-67.

Fox, B.W. & Guest, J.P. (2003) The Lichen Flora of Cheshire & Wirral. Nepa Books, Frodsham, Cheshire.

Freeman, S.N.  & Crick, H.Q.P. (2003) The decline of the Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata in the UK: an integrated population model. Ibis 145: 400-412.

Freeman, S.N., Robinson, R.A., Clark, J.A., Griffin, B.M. & Adams, S.Y. (2007b) Changing demography and population decline in the Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris: a multisite approach to Integrated Population Monitoring. Ibis 149: 587–596.

Fuller, R.J., Gregory, R.D., Gibbons, D.W., Marchant, J.H., Wilson, J.D., Baillie, S.R. & Carter N. (1995) Population Declines and Range Contractions Among Lowland Farmland Birds in Britain. Conservation Biology 9: 1425-1441.

Fuller, R.J., Noble, D.G., Smith, K.W. & Vanhinsbergh, D. (2005) Recent declines in populations of woodland birds in Britain: a review of possible causes. British Birds 98: 116–143.


Gibbons, D.W., Reid, J.B. & Chapman, R.A. (eds) (1993) The New Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland: 1988-1991. T & A D Poyser, London. 

Gilbert, G. (2002) The status and habitat of Spotted Crakes Porzana porzana in Britain in 1999. Bird Study 49: 79-86.

Gilbert, G., Tyler, G.A., and Smith, K.W. (2002). Local annual survival of booming male Great Bittern Botaurus stellaris in Britain, in the period 1990–1999. Ibis 144: 51–61.

Gill, Jr, R.E. (1986) What won't Turnstones eat? British Birds 79: 402-403

Gillings, S. & Fuller, R.J. (2001) Habitat selection by Skylarks Alauda arvensis wintering in Britain in 1997/98. Bird Study 48: 293-307.

Gillings, S., Fuller, R.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2005). Diurnal studies do not predict nocturnal habitat choice and site selection of Eurasian Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria and Northern Lapwings Vanellus vanellus. Auk 122: 1249-1260.

Gillings, S., Austin, G.E., Fuller, R.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2006) Distribution shifts in wintering Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria and Lapwing Vanellus vanellus in Britain. Bird Study 53: 274-284.

Gillings, S. (2008) Designing a winter bird atlas field methodology: issues of time and space in sampling and interactions with habitat. J. Ornithology in press

Glen, N.W. & Perrins, C.M. (1988) Co-operative breeding by Long-tailed Tits. British Birds 81: 630–641.

Glue, D.E. (1982) The Garden Bird Book. Macmillan, London.

Glue, D.E. (1990) Breeding biology of the Grasshopper Warbler in Britain. British Birds 83: 131–145.

Glue, D.E. & Boswell, T. (1994) Comparative nesting ecology of three British breeding woodpeckers. British Birds 87: 253-269.

Glue, D.E. (1996) Goldfinches feeding in gardens. British Birds 89: 459-460.

Gooch, S., Baillie, S.R. & Birkhead, T.R. (1991) Magpie Pica pica and Songbird Populations. Retrospective Investigation of Trends in Population Density and Breeding Success. J.  Appl. Ecol. 28: 1068-1086.

Gosler, A.G. (1993) The Great Tit. Hamlyn, London.

Green, R.E. (1978) Factors affecting the diet of farmland Skylarks Alauda arvensis. J. Anim. Ecol. 47: 913-928.

Green, R.E. (1984) The feeding ecology and survival of partridge chicks Alectoris rufa and Perdix perdix on arable farmland in East Anglia. Journal of Applied Ecology 21: 817-830.

Gregory, R.D. & Marchant, J.H. (1996) Population trends of Jays, Magpies, Jackdaws and Carrion Crows in the United Kingdom. Bird Study 43: 28–37.

Gruar, D., Barritt, D. & Peach, W.J. (2006) Summer utilization of Oilseed Rape by Reed Buntings Emberiza schoeniclus and other farmland birds. Bird Study 53: 47–54.

Guest, J.P., Elphick, D., Hunter, J.S.A. & Norman, D. (1992) The Breeding Bird Atlas of Cheshire and Wirral. Cheshire and Wirral Ornithological Society.

Guyomarc’h, J.C., Combreau, O., Puigcerver, M., Fontoura, P., Aebischer, N. & Wallace, D.I.M. (1998) Coturnix coturnix Quail. BWP Update 2: 27-46.


Hagemeijer, E.J.M. & Blair, M.J. (1997) The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds: Their Distribution and Abundance. T & A D Poyser, London.

Haines-Young, R.H., Barr, C.J., Black, H.I.J., Briggs, D.J., Bunce, R.G.H., Clarke, R.T., Cooper, A., Dawson, F.H., Firbank, L.G., Fuller, R.M., Furse, M.T., Gillespie, M.K., Hill, R., Hornung, M., Howard, D.C., McCann, T., Morecroft, M.D., Petit, S., Sier, A.R.J., Smart, S.M., Smith, G.M., Stott, A.P., Stuart, R.C. & Watkins, J.W. (2002) Accounting for nature: assessing habitats in the UK countryside, DETR, London ISBN 1 85112 460 8

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Harper, D. (1995) Studies of West Palearctic birds: Corn Bunting. British Birds 88:401-421.

Hartley, I.R., Shepherd, M. & Thompson, D.B. (1995) Habitat selection and polygyny in breeding Corn Buntings Miliaria calandra. Ibis 137: 508 - 514.

Higginbotham, G.H. (1995) First Confirmed Breeding of Goosander in Cheshire. Cheshire & Wirral Bird Report 1995, p. 92.

Hinsley, S.A., Bellamy, P.E., Newton, I. & Sparks, T.H. (1995) Habitat and landscape factors influencing the presence of individual breeding bird species in woodland fragments. Journal of Avian Biology 26: 94–104.

Hinsley, S.A., Carpenter, J.E., Broughton, R.K., Bellamy, P.E., Rothery, P., Amar, A., Hewson, C.M. & Gosler A.G. (2007) Habitat selection by Marsh Tits Poecile palustris in the UK. Ibis 149 (Suppl. 2): 224-233.

Holland, P.K. & Yalden, D.W. (2002) Population dynamics of Common Sandpipers Actitis hypoleucos in the Peak District of Derbyshire – a different decade. Bird Study 49: 131–138.

Holling, M. & the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. (2007). Rare breeding birds in the United Kingdom in 2003 and 2004. British Birds 100: 321-367.

Holling, M. & the Rare Breeding Birds Panel (2007b) Non-native breeding birds in the United Kingdom in 2003, 2004 and 2005. British Birds 100: 638-649.

Holloway, S. (1996) The Historical Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland: 1875-1900. T. & A.D. Poyser, London.

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Huntley, B., Green, R.E., Collingham, Y.C. & Willis, S.G. (2007) A Climatic Atlas of European Breeding Birds. Lynx, Barcelona.

Hutchinson, C.D, & Neath, B. (1978) Little Gulls in Britain and Ireland. British Birds 71: 563-581.


Jenkins, R.K.B. & Ormerod, S.J. (2002) Habitat preferences of breeding water rail Rallus aquaticus. Bird Study 49: 2-10.

Jenkins, R.K., Buckton, S.T. & Ormerod, S.J. (1995) Local movements and population density of water rails Rallus aquaticus in a small inland reedbed. Bird Study 42: 82-87.

Johnston, K., Ver Hoef, J.M., Krivoruchko, K. & Lucas, N. (2001). Using ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst. ESRI.

Kenrick, H. (1940) A study of Blue Tits by colour-ringing. British Birds 33: 307-310.

Kyrkos, A., Wilson, J.D. & Fuller, R.J. (1998) Farmland habitat change and abundance of Yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella: An analysis of Common Birds Census data. Bird Study 45: 232-246.


Lack, D. (1956) Swifts in a Tower.Methuen, London.

Lack, P.C. (ed) (1986) The Atlas of Wintering Birds in Britain and Ireland. T & A D Poyser, Calton.

Lack, P. (1992) Birds on Lowland Farms. HMSO, London.

Langston, R.H.W., Gregory, R.D. & Adams, R. (2002) The status of the Hawfinch in the UK 1975-1999. British Birds. 95: 166-173.

Leach, I.H. (1981) Wintering Blackcaps in Britain and Ireland. Bird Study 28: 5-14.

Lees, M. (1994) Habitat and Breeding Population Status of Long-Eared Owls in Cheshire. Cheshire and Wirral Bird Report pp.94-96.

Lever, C. (1977) The Naturalized Animals of the British Isles. Hutchinson, London.

Lewis, A., Amar, A., Cordi-Piec, D. & Thewlis, R.M. (2007) Factors influencing Willow Tit Poecile montanus site occupancy: a comparison of abandoned and occupied woods. Ibis 149 (Suppl. 2): 205-213.

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Lowe, F.A. (1953). The Heron. Collins New Naturalist, London.

Lundberg, A. & Alatalo, R.V. (1992) The Pied Flycatcher. T. & A.D. Poyser, London

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McKnight, A., O’Brien, M., Waterhouse, M. & Reed, S. (1997) Breeding Birds of the North Staffordshire Moors 1996. RSPB

Marchant, J.H., Hudson, R., Carter, S.P. & Whittington, P.A. (1990) Population Trends in British Breeding Birds. BTO, Tring.

Marchant, J.H., Freeman, S.N., Crick, H.Q.P. & Beaven, L.P. (2004) The BTO Heronries Census of England and Wales 1928–2000: new indices and a comparison of analytical methods. Ibis 146: 323–334.

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Martin, B. (1997) A Survey of Summering Swifts Apus apus in Cheshire and Wirral and their Conservation Status. Cheshire and Wirral Bird Report 1997 pp.104-113.

Martin, B. & Smith, J. (2007) A survey of breeding Black-necked Grebes in the UK: 1973-2004. British Birds 100: 368-378.

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May, R. (2005b) Grouse counts on Piggford and High Moor. CAWOS Bird News No. 67 p.14.

Mead, C. (1984) Robins. Whittet Books, London.

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